Linggo, Marso 11, 2012

HISTORY OF CALINTAAN

Town of Calintaan

 
HISTORY OF CALINTAAN
 By Rudy Candelario
Translated in English by Benjamin Walata

I – DURING THE SPANISH OCCUPATION OF MINDORO 


            The name of the village which was mentioned first in the history of the places under the Municipality of Calintaan at present is Ililin.  Local historians believe that the name of the village now is Brgy. Iriron for in the old map drawn by Fr. Murillo, SJ during the Spanish regime, Ililin was indicated in the spot where Iriron is presently located. 

            In 1666, Jesuit records mentioned that two missionaries of this religious congregation baptized adults 20 to 24 years old in Ililin.  The old Spanish document also mentioned that in 1733, this village was a part of the Parish of Mangarin.[1]

            On October 23, 1739 four o clock in the morning, the guard at the watchtower of the Ililin fort saw one hundred Moro pirates aboard five bancas approaching their village.  He blew his tambuli or crude trumpet fashioned from carabao horn to warn the villagers.  Residents of the place escaped but a few of them including Fr. Leon de San Jose, a missionary friar assigned in Mangarin who was only visiting Ililin were captured by the pirates. 

            The pirates burned the convent and church of Ililin.  They stole the important materials inside the house of worship and brought the captives to Jolo.  In 1740, the head of the Order of Augustinian Recollects received the tragic news that Fr. Jose was killed by the pirates.

            In 1749, changes were made in the divisions of parishes in Mindoro.  Ililin was put under the jurisdiction of the Parish of Calavite.  That year, two hundred eighty persons were residing in this village.

            In August 1754, Moro pirates aboard six swift bancas attacked Ililin.  However, this time the people valiantly defended their village.  When the pirates found out that they could not defeat the defenders, they retreated.  They sailed towards Dongon, believed to be Brgy.San Nicolas at present and attacked it.

Until the year 1800, aside from the paragraph written by Augustinian missionary Fr. Joaquin Martinez de Zuñiga in his book, that he visited Ililin which according to him was a village destroyed by the Moros, no other historical record was written about this community.

Due to their extreme fear pf the Moro pirates, the families who were formerly living in Ililin settled on the plains and mountains a few kilometers away from the coast.  In 1810, a certain Jose de Silva of Mansalay visited the people scattered in various settlements and convinced them to live again in one place.  The people were convinced and the barrios of Idamay and Nayayos were formed.  That same year, it was mentioned in the baptismal books of Naujan that Fr. Pedro de Sta. Rita visited the abovementioned barrios and baptized thirty six (36) adults, including the Mangyans.

In 1819, a new parish was created at the old village of Ililin which during that time was already called Iriron.  Placed under the jurisdiction of this parish were the barrios of Abra de Ilo, Mamburao, Dongon, Nayayos, Idamay, Mangarin and Iling.  The total population of the parish was one thousand three hundred (1,300) persons.[2]

Fr. Aniceto dela Concepcion was appointed as the first parish priest of Iriron.  He arrived in this parish in 1821.  His father and mother were Spaniards but he was born in the Philippines.  Although the government provided him with a banca and armed guards every time he visited the different parts of his parish, he found the work extremely difficult.  Fr. Aniceto got sick of malaria and on March 25, 1824 he died in the island of Iling.  In the meantime, since no replacement could be found, Iriron was placed again under the jurisdiction of the Parish of Naujan.

            Based on Spanish records, the population of Iriron in 1829 was one hundred fifty (150).  It was also recorded that this village has two cannons used by the residents in defending themselves against Moro pirates.

            Due to the frequent incursions of the pirates to their village, the people of Iriron transferred to other places.  What remained in the settlement were the church, convent, prison and a few houses.  Years later, visitors who entered the church were surprised to see the three chandeliers fashioned out of the backbone of a large whale.[3]


II – ESTABLISHMENT OF EL PUEBLO DE MAGARANG AND THE
      REVOLUTION AGAINST SPAIN


            In the latter part of 1871, with its acquisition of fast sailing boats, the Spanish authorities were able to control piracy in the different parts of the Philippines, including the island of Mindoro.  Gradually, the people returned to their devastated villages.  Other communities appeared and one such settlement was Magarang.  A rich Spaniard, Señor Pascual Ledesma established a cattle ranch in this place.[4]

            In 1894, the Order of Augustinian Recollects bought the cattle ranch of Señor Pascual Ledesma.  The Spanish friars in Zambales, who were members of the said congregation, hired Espiridion Jimenez as administrator of the ranch and convinced him to live in Magarang.  Together with his family and relatives who would help him take care of thousands of cattle, Mr. Jimenez settled in Magarang.  After two years, the center of the cattle ranch became a Spanish pueblo and Mr. Jimenez was appointed as the capitan del pueblo.[5]

            Later on, Capitan Jimenez and the Spanish friars disagreed on some matters.   The leader of the pueblo, together with his family and four other families looked for vacant land which they could cultivate and call their own.  Temporarily, they stayed at Iriron.  A few kilometers south of this settlement, they found a forested land suitable for agriculture.  The vacant land was near two lakes full of leeches during rainy season.  In their dialect, the place where leeches abound is called Calintaan, thus, they called the area by that name.

            The group of farmers who cleared the forested area of Calintaan and settled there were composed of the families of Jimenez, Pascual, Labrador, Pudan and Isidro.  They were acknowledged as the founders of this community.

            When the Filipinos revolted against the Spaniards, Capitan Espiridion Jimenez formed a group of revolutionaries.  The three capitanes of Iriron, Isidro Zamora, Pedro Dapil and Marcelino Vitang were among its members.  They coordinated their activities with the group of revolutionaries from Sablayan led by Capitan Pedro Fernandez.  The prominent members of the other group were former cabezas de barangay:  Vicente Gallembas, Tiago Dangeros, Carpo Urieta, Docoy Eniega, Vicente Dangcoding, Tiago Dantayana and Paeng Dawatis. 

            In the latter part of 1897, with the approval of Capitan Marianito Abeleda of Paluan, who was the acknowledged leader of the revolutionaries in West Mindoro and Capitan Daniel Sambong, assigned as one of the heads of the revolutionary government in Calapan, the combined forces of Capitan Pedro Fernandez and Capitan Espiridion Jimenez composed of seventy five men, went to El Pueblo de Magarang to capture the Spaniards staying there, including the missionary friars.[6]

            Based on the history written by Antoon Postma, a Dutch researcher, the revolutionaries temporarily detained their captives at Magarang, sent them to Paluan and finally imprisoned them at Taysan, Batangas.  They were set free in 1904, during the American occupation of Mindoro.[7]


III – DURING THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION OF MINDORO


            Calintaan became a progressive community after the Spanish regime.  Mr. Eligio Jimenez was appointed as the first cabeza de barangay of this place.

            Under the American regime, Sablayan was created as a municipality.  Iriron and Calintaan were among the barrios placed under its jurisdiction.  The voters of Calintaan saw to it that every election time, the candidate from their barrio would win and would serve as their representative in the municipal council.  Among their representatives were Leoncio Panganiban, Benigno Lontoc, Juanito Gonzales, Juan Credo, Pedro Credo, Agustin Esmelo, Francisco Esmelo, Eriberto Lineses, Atanacio Encomio, Constancio Villarosa, Cornelio Gasmin, Aniceto Apigo, Alberto Obispo, Amador Ulay and Vicente Isidro.[8]

            In the early part of 1914, the first primary school in Calintaan was opened.  The first teachers who were assigned there were Remedios Jimenez, Leoncio Panganiban and Primitivo Zamora.[9]

Since Calintaan was far from the seat of the municipal government of Sablayan, the inhabitants of this barrio sent a petition to the municipal government requesting that their community be created as another municipality.  During that time, the whole island of Mindoro was only one province and Calapan was the seat of the provincial government.  Members of the municipal council of Sablayan endorsed the said petition to the Provincial Council of Calapan.  The petition was not approved because according to the provincial treasurer, the income of Calintaan would not suffice to finance the operation of a municipal government.

            In the latter part of 1940, Mr. Pedro Gonzales was convinced by the voters of Calintaan, led by Teniente del Barrio Tirso Jimenez to run for mayor of Sablayan.  He won by a wide margin over his political opponents.  He earned the distinction of being the first leader from Calintaan to serve as municipal mayor of Sablayan.[10]     
                     

IV – DURING WORLD WAR II UNTIL THE LIBERATION OF MINDORO FROM
        JAPANESE OCCUPATION


            Hon. Pedro Gonzales has only served for eleven months as mayor of Sablayan when World War II broke out.  Almost all people of Calintaan evacuated to other places.  With his family, Mayor Gonzales evacuated to Looc, the place of birth of his wife.[11]

            In April 1942, the Japanese soldiers occupied Calintaan.  They burned all houses left unoccupied by families who evacuated to other places.  During their stay in this place, they forced all male residents to work in their military camp at San Jose.  They obliged Remedios Jimenez to teach Niponggo to the elementary pupils of Calintaan. 

            Great joy was felt by the people of Calintaan when the U.S. led Allied Forces under the command of Brig. Gen. William Dunckel arrived on December 15, 1944 and liberated the whole island of Mindoro from Japanese occupation.  The Japanese soldiers who stayed in this place retreated to the mountains.

            During the liberation of Mindoro and the whole Philippines from Japanese occupation, from December 1944 up to May 1943, a radar station was built by the Americans on a hill at Sitio Bulangcog, Barrio Iriron.  They used the facilities of the said station in detecting the movements of the warplanes of the enemies.[12]


V – AFTER THE WAR UNTIL THE CREATION OF THE MUNICIPALITY      
      

            When peace was restored, the inhabitants of Calintaan who evacuated to other places returned.  In addition, families of farmers from Central Luzon and the island of Panay who were looking for land to till migrated to this place.  New sitios were formed in the area between Lumintao and Busuangan Rivers.  Years later, the sitios became barrios of Tanyag, New Dagupan and Concepcion.

            On November 15, 1950 the formal creation of the provinces of Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro took effect.  Starting that year, rapid migration to Mindoro of people from other provinces of the Philippines took place. Gradually, the sitios and barrios surrounding Calintaan were cleared of forests.  Two groups of farmers built communal irrigation systems for their ricefields.  Members of the Tau-Buhid or Batangan tribe who formerly lived in the lowland transferred to the mountains.  However, the names they have given to their former settlements remained --- proofs that they were the original inhabitants of those places.     

            The people of Calintaan pursued their request to local officials of Occidental Mindoro that their barrio be created as a municipality.  When Congressman Pedro Medalla, Sr. was elected as representative of Occidental Mindoro to the Philippine Congress, he filed a bill for the creation of the Municipality of Calintaan.  On June 18, 1966 by virtue of Republic Act No. 4732, Calintaan was separated from Sablayan and created as another municipality.  Placed under its jurisdiction were the barrios of Concepcion, Iriron, New Dagupan and Tanyag.  The total land area of the new municipality is thirty eight thousand two hundred fifty (38,250) hectares.[13]

            That same year, due to the urgent request of the parents and teachers of elementary school graduates, a barrio high school was opened at Poblacion, Calintaan.  Temporarily, classrooms of the elementary school being administered by Mr. Feliciano Pajayon were also used as classrooms of the barrio high school.[14]

            In the election held on November 14, 1967 Hon. Felomino Jimenez was elected as the first municipal mayor of Calintaan.  With the assistance of Congressman Pedro Medalla, Sr., the municipal building, roads and bridges of the new municipality were constructed.


VI – DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW TOWN UNTIL THE MARTIAL LAW PERIOD
             

            In 1970, under the management of Mrs. Lucila Viaña, the barrio high school of Calintaan was elevated to the status of a municipal high school.  After ten years, when Mrs. Iluminada Remo served as the principal of the said school, he opened extension classes of Calintaan Municipal High School at Tanyag, Iriron and Concepcion.[15]

            Results of the census conducted by the National Statistics Office in Calintaan on May 6, 1970 showed that the total population of the communities under the jurisdiction of Calintaan was seven thousand nine hundred forty nine (7,949).[16]

            Meanwhile, due to the continuous arrival of families of farmers from other provinces and nearby towns, two barrios were added to the jurisdiction of the municipality of Calintaan.  These are Poypoy and Malpalon.  The indigenous people of Clintaan lived on the hilly sitios of these two barrios now called as barangays.

            In order to protect the endangered species of plants and animals in Occidental Mindoro, the mountains of Poypoy, Calintaan and the municipality of Sablayan were declared as national park by the national government.  Hunting and killing of the tamaraw, the wild animal found only in Mindoro is strictly prohibited inside this wildlife sanctuary, known as Mt. Iglit Parks & Wildlife Reservation.

            During the early part of Decade Eighties, the irrigation canal, roads and other facilities of the communal irrigation system formed by groups of farmers were improved by the National Irrigation Administration or NIA.  The total area of ricefields irrigated at Brgy. Tanyag, Malpalon, Iriron, New Dagupan and Poblacion increased.

            In 1971, after the term of office of Mayor Jimenez, Hon. Amador Sison was elected as municipal mayor of Calintaan.  During his first year in office, martial law was declared in the Philippines.  He implemented in his town the development projects of the national government, like the concreting of the plaza and the streets in front of the municipal building, construction of the road in Sitio Cambiswer, Brgy. Iriron and Malpalon.  In addition, the irrigation system was improved by deepening and widening the main canals.[17]

            In April 1977, Mayor Sison died.  Vice Mayor Romeo Calabio served as the town’s chief executive.  His term of office lasted for three years.  He was able to construct the health center and the first phase of the water system at the town’s center. 

            During martial law period, the national government’s electrification program was implemented in Calintaan.  The construction of concrete roads and bridges in Occidental Mindoro was hastened.  Concrete bridges were built over the rivers of Anahawin, Iriron and Busuangan.  The municipalities of Rizal and Calintaan were joined by a concrete bridge over Lumintao River.

            In the election held on January 30, 1980 Mayor Felomino Jimenez regained his position as municipal mayor of Calintaan.  He worked for the completion of the irrigation system project and the concreting of the streets at the town’s center.

            An important religious event happened on July 1, 1983.  It made the descendants of the founders of Calintaan proud.  On that date, Bishop Vicente Manuel, SVD, DD a great grandson of Capitan Espiridion Jimenez was formally installed by Papal Nuncio Bruno Torpiglianni, DD as the first vicar apostolic of the newly created Apostolic Vicariate of San Jose at St. Joseph Cathedral, San Jose. Occidental Mindoro.  The significant occasion was witnessed by hundreds of families from Calintaan.

            Bishop Manuel and his clergy implemented pastoral programs geared towards raising the living condition of the Catholic faithful in Occidental Mindoro.  The said programs were vigorously implemented in Calintaan.

            On August 30, 1985 Mayor Jimenez died.  He was succeeded by Vice Mayor Apolinario Bullagay.  He renovated and beautified the municipal hall of Calintaan.[18]



VII - AFTER THE PEACEFUL REVOLUTION AT EDSA  


            In 1986, after the peaceful revolution at EDSA, all local officials in the Philippines were replaced by President Corazon Aquino.  OIC Mayor Edgardo Gagtan was appointed as the chief executive of the municipality of Calintaan.  He constructed the public market at the town’s center.  He served as municipal mayor for thirteen months.

            In December 1987, during the campaign period for local elections, OIC Mayor Gagtan resigned as the town’s chief executive.  First Municipal Councilor Hoverto Isidro took over as municipal mayor.  His term of office lasted for four months.  He was able to improve the municipal plaza.

            That same year, elements of the New People’s Army (NPA) conducted daring raids at the different municipalities of Occidental Mindoro.  They attacked the police headquarters and the municipal hall of Calintaan.  They confiscated two guns from the police station; typewriter and other equipment from the municipal office.  Luckily, nobody was hurt during the incident.[19]

            In the 1988 elections, Atty. Eric Labrador was elected as the municipal mayor of Calintaan.  He worked for the improvement of the roads going to the different barangays and constructed additional rooms in the municipal building.[20] 
           
            That same year, a group of NPA rebels ambushed a combined force of Philippine Constabulary (PC) and Citizens Armed Forces Geographical Unit (CAFGU) at Brgy. Iriron.  Six members of the government’s forces were killed in that tragic incident.[21]

            Elements of the government’s armed forces intensified their campaign against the NPA.  Aside from intensive military operation, the Philippine Constabulary conducted seminars at the countryside concerning the advantages of a democratic system of government.  Amnesty was granted to rebel returnees.  Those who returned to the government’s side were given agricultural land at the resettlement site for rebel returnees at Sitio Kantoroy, Brgy. Manoot, Rizal.  After a few years, the influence of the rebel movement to the people of Calintaan weakened.

            In the meantime, the school campus of Calintaan Municipal High School was transferred on top of the hill between Brgy. New Dagupan and Poblacion.  With the assistance of Governor Peter Medalla, Jr., the buildings left by the company which constructed the roads in Calintaan were converted into classrooms.  Additional structures were also built.  Under the management of its principal, Mr. Lorenzo Isidro, the number of students in the secondary school increased. 

            In 1991, Mayor Rolando Sison was elected as the municipal mayor of Calintaan.  He constructed the garage and canteen of the municipal hall including the multi-purpose building and beautified the municipal compound.  He strived to maintain peace and order in the municipality.[22]

            By virtue of an executive order of President Corazon Aquino, the secondary school which was formerly supported by the municipal government became Calintaan National High School (CNHS).  At the same time, the barangay high schools at Tanyag, Iriron and Concepcion were elevated to the status of national high schools.  Through the assistance of Governor Josephine Ramirez-Sato, a school bus was given to CNHS by a group of kind hearted Japanese.

            In the 1995 elections, Atty. Eric Labrador regained the mayoralty post.  With the concurrence of the members of the municipal council, he bought heavy equipments for the infrastructure projects of the municipality.  He granted scholarships to poor but deserving students.  He built the municipal storehouse.[23]

            The hierarchy of the Catholic Church in the province worked hand in hand with the municipal government of Calintaan for the betterment of the living condition of the farmers.  A farmers’ cooperative was formed in this municipality by the livelihood movement of the Apostolic Vicariate of San Jose.  Trainings were also conducted by the said movement to different groups of farmers regarding Integrated Pest Management method of agriculture and organic farming.  Aside from the said activities, a group of religious sisters belonging to the Congregation of the Daughters of Charity helps and lives with the indigenous people who are members of the Tau-Buhid tribe or Batangan at Sitio Balangabong, Brgy. Malpalon.  They are trying to uplift the living condition of the indigenous people and encourage them to fight for their rights.[24]

            Members of the Sangguniang Bayan (SB) of Calintaan proposed the changing of the official name of their town during the latter part of 1996.  However, when they conducted a series of consultations in the different barangays, an overwhelming majority of their town mates rejected the proposal of changing the official name of their municipality to San Miguel.[25]

            In the early part of 1997, a group of farmers at Sitio Gutad, Brgy. Tanyag succeeded in having the lease contract between the government and two families of cattle ranchers in San Jose, cancelled.  The plain lands, formerly parts of the cattle ranches which were occupied by members of the group, were awarded to them after a long period of negotiation with the national government and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.[26]         
 
            Through the initiative of the municipal government, a fishermen’s cooperative whose members help in protecting marine life was organized in Calintaan.  At the same time, concerned youth assist a wildlife friendly group in conserving the tamaraw and its natural habitat.[27]  To keep their town mates aware of what are happening in their area and to ensure their involvement in the development projects being sponsored by the municipal government and different groups, SB members Arsenio Boy Samson and Dante Esteban always report to DZVT, a Catholic radio station at San Jose, Occidental Mindoro.

            During the May 1998 elections, Hon. Renato Paulino was elected as the municipal mayor of Calintaan.  With the assistance of the national and provincial government, he continued implementing the infrastructure projects in this municipality.


VIII – CALINTAAN, AFTER THE START OF THE NEW MILLENIUM


            Mayor Paulino tried his best to help his constituents who sought his assistance.  He attended to their needs.  The people were satisfied with his performance as the head of the municipal government that in the 2001 & 2004 elections he was reelected as mayor of Calintaan.  He was the first mayor of this municipality to be reelected twice.[28]

            Despite the government’s effort to attract members of leftist groups to the democratic system of government, a group of rebels still operate in Calintaan.  Bloody clashes between government soldiers and members of the New Peoples Army (NPA) occurred at the hilly portion of Brgy. Poypoy.  The Philippine Army intensified their anti-insurgency drive in this municipality.  For more than a year now, no bloody encounter was reported between elements of the Phil. Army and the NPA.      

            To maintain peace and achieve prosperity for his town mates, Mayor Paulino did his duty as chief executive of the municipality.  Among his many visible accomplishments were the establishment of a municipal nursery, the construction of concrete roads within Poblacion, Calintaan, the construction of a concrete public market, an office for the municipal agriculturist and the still unfinished municipal gymnasium.[29]

            Since Mayor Paulino has completed the three term limit, during the 2007 National & Local Elections he decided to run as vice mayor of Hon. Lily Estoya, his running mate in 2004.  Both of them won.  At present, Hon. Lily Estoya is the municipal mayor of Calintaan.     




HISTORY OF THE SEVEN BARAMGAYS OF CALINTAAN


1.  CONCEPCION
  

            The indigenous people named the river passing through this place as Bingag.  It also became the name of their community near the river.   

            The bigger portion of Bingag was still a forest when World War II broke out.  To avoid the Japanese soldiers, the indigenous people belonging to the Tau-Buhid tribe hid on the mountains.

            After the war, the indigenous people returned to their kaingin.  Four years later, Olivar family from Cebu, Zamora family from Calapan and Impacta family from Iling arrived.  They cleared the forested area of Bingag.  Later on, families of farmers from the island of Maningning, province of Antique, including families from Romblon who were looking for land to till, settled in this place.

            When farmers from other provinces flocked to Bingag, the Tau Buhids transferred to the mountains.  Eventually, Bingag became a sitio of Iriron which in 1949 was a barrio of the municipality of Sablayan.

            Heeding the request of the residents, Bingag was created as a barrio of Sablayan in 1951.  In the same year, the government opened an elementary school here.  Through the leadership of Teniente del Barrio Juan Francisco, the residents constructed a schoolhouse made of nipa and lumber.  After many years, with the help of the provincial officials, a concrete structure for the school was built.

            When Fr. Erich Stottok, SVD served as parish priest of Calintaan during the latter part of 1950’s, he built a chapel in Bingag.  They Catholic faithful enthroned there the image of their patron saint, Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception.  They were able to convince their leaders to change the name of their barrio to Concepcion, in honor of their patron saint.

            When Calintaan was created as a municipality in 1967, Concepcion was one of the barrios which was placed under its jurisdiction.  The following year, through the initiative of Teniente del Barrio Martin Zamora, the barrio site was surveyed.  Lots were set aside for residential purposes, plaza, market, school campus, barangay hall and other public buildings.

            During martial law period, the national highway connecting the different municipalities in mainland Occidental Mindoro was constructed.  It passed through Concepcion.  It greatly helped in the economic progress of the community.  The restaurants in this barrio now called a barangay, serve as stopovers of travelers from San Jose to other municipalities in the northern portion of Occidental Mindoro.  Many enterprising boys and girls sell foodstuffs and refreshing drinks to the passengers of buses and jeepneys which rest momentarily in this barangay.  

            In 1976, Calintaan Municipal High School opened an extension class for first year students in Concepcion.  Years later, due to the increase in enrolment and the construction of concrete buildings, what started as extension classes became Concepcion Barangay High School.  In 1993, it was elevated to the status of a national high school.

            The barangay hall of Concepcion was built during the term of office of Brgy. Captain Marcelo Gallardo.  It was improved and made bigger by his successor, Brgy. Captain Rogelio Francisco.

            Aside from the aforementioned leaders, those who served as teniente, capitan del barrio and barangay captain of Concepcion were Martin Narciso, Sesinando Olivar, Sr., Hulian Macawile, Sr., Angel Zamora, Villardo Macawile, Roque Batolio, Gregorio Quinton, Leonor Batolio, Exequiel Batolio, Eulogio Quiñones and Rogelio Francisco.  The leader of the barangay at present is Brgy. Captain Francisco Julian, Sr.[30]


2.  IRIRON


            In the map drawn by Fr. Murillo, SJ during the Spanish regime, the village of Ililin was indicated in the place where Iriron is located at present, thus, we could assume that this barangay was the first community of lowlanders who settled in the area between the rivers of Lumintao and Busuangan. 

            It was stated in the old record of the Spaniards that missionary priests visited and baptized many adults at Ililin in 1666.

            In 1739, Moro pirates attacked Ililin and they captured Fr. Leon de San Jose who happened to visit this place.

            The pirates again attacked Ililin in 1754.  This time, the natives ferociously defended their village.  The marauders were forced to retreat.

            In 1819, Ililin was already known as Iriron.  It was made as the center of a parish, the area of jurisdiction of which encompassed Abra de Ikog & Mamburao in the north and  Mangarin & Iling in the south.   

            In 1896, the families of Mr.Espiridion Jimenez and his relatives stayed temporarily in Iriron, when they left Magarang, a progressive community at the southwestern portion of Lumintao River.  In 1898, the said leader organized a group of revolutionaries and they captured Fr. Calixto Moral del Pilar, the parish priest of Iriron.

            After the revolution, Mr. Jimenez and his relatives left Iriron.  They founded the village of Calintaan on a wide plain near two lakes full of leeches, a few kilometers south of Irison.

            Iriron was again mentioned in the report sent by Fr. Julian Duval to Bishop Alfredo Verzosa of Lipa, in 1920.  It was stated in the report that the person who managed the land where the church was built during the Spanish times, was Mr. Ricardo Jimenez.  The priest also reported that he saw in the house of Mr. Pascual Malanan the bell of the chapel with the year 1907 engraved inside it and the statue of San Isidro Labrador, the patron saint of the barrio.

            In 1921, a strong typhoon devastated Iriron.   Many houses in the barrio, including the big trees in its forest were felled by the strong winds.

            Before the outbreak of World War II, Iriron was one of the big barrios of Sablayan.  The sitios of Concepcion, Malpalon and Poypoy were under its jurisdiction.  By that time, the old church built by the Spaniards was reduced to ruins.

            During the war and up to the time when the Allied Forces were liberating Occidental Mindoro from Japanese occupation, Iriron was the temporary headquarters of the American soldiers.

            When Calintaan was created as a municipality in 1967, Iriron was one of the barrios which was placed under its jurisdiction.  In 1995, the services of Occidental Mindoro Electric Cooperative or OMECO reached this place.

            In her desire to help the youth of Iriron acquire secondary education, Mrs. Iluminada Remo, principal of Calintaan Municipal High School opened extension classes in this community.  The extension classes evolved into a full fledged high school.  In 1993, the said high school became Iriron National High School.

            Based on the information gathered by the charitable institution, PLAN International, Mr. Edilberto Lineses was the first teniente del barrio of Iriron.  During his term of office, the elementary school in this community was established.

            Aside from Mr. Lineses, the persons who served as teniente, capitan del barrio and barangay captain of Iriron were Melencio Oliquiño, Domingo Bautista, Rodolfo Pajayon, Benita Ibuna and Maximino Guevarra.  The leader of the barangay at present is Brgy. Captain Merlita Ildefonso.[31]


3.  MALPALON


            Malpalon was the name given by the indigenous people belonging to the Tau-Buhid (Batangan) tribe to the river flowing through this place.  They also called the community founded by the lowlanders near the bank of the river by that name.  This place was once a pastureland full of tall grasses.

            Malpalon is located at the foot of a mountain.  Members of the Tau-Buhid tribe were its first inhabitants.  Their culture remained intact, despite the Spanish, American and Japanese occupation of Mindoro.

During the early part of Decade Fifties, when hundreds of families from other provinces flocked to the southern part of Occidental Mindoro, two groups of farmers settled in Malpalon.  The first group were Visayan farmers led by Artemio Prado.  The second group led by Efraim Tejada were farmers from the Ilocos region.

            At first, members of the two groups used to fight each other.  Avoiding involvement in any kind of conflict, the indigenous people transferred to the mountains.  Fortunately, through frequent dialogue, the two groups reached an agreement as to the specific location of the agricultural land each member should occupy. 

            In 1955, Malpalon became a sitio of Sablayan.  After five years it was elevated to the status of a barrio. Artemio Prado was elected as the first teniente del barrio.  It was during his term when the elementary school in Malpalon was opened.           

            Despite being a barrio, many people from other places did not want to go to this community in the past, for aside from being not accessible to land transportation vehicles, a traveler has to cross a winding river seven times.  Before, every time the river overflow its bank, a visitor has to ride on a horse or carabao.

            In 1967, through the efforts of the late Congressman Pedro Medalla, Sr., Calintaan the progressive barrio where the indigenous people of surrounding communities buy their basic needs, was elevated to the status of a municipality.  Malpalon was one of the barrios which was placed under its jurisdiction.

            A few months after Calintaan was created as a municipality, a school for the Tau-Buhid was opened by the Department of Education at Sitio Balangabong, the hilly area where the indigenous people who left Malpalon transferred their community.  Mr. Domingo Tagare was assigned as teacher in that school.  He liked so much the community of the indigenous people that when he retired he did not leave the place. 

            Through cooperative labor, the farmers of Malpalon were able to construct an irrigation system for their farm.  The source of water for irrigation purposes are the rivers of Nagapi and Malpalon.

            When members of a rebel group in Mindoro became active in fighting the government, they frequently visited Malpalon.  Some prominent residents of this place, fearing that the rebels might harm them, stayed temporarily at Poblacion, Calintaan and Poblacion, San Jose.                  

            Active members of a religious sect and the Catholic Church helped uplift the living condition of the indigenous people of Malpalon.  At present, a group of religious sisters belonging to the congregation of the Daughters of Charity are living with the Tau-Buhid at Sitio Balangabong.

            The municipal government is also trying to uplift the living condition of the indigenous people.  The road going to Barrio Malpalon, now called a barangay, was improved and bridges were built over the winding river.  They encouraged the indigenous people to plant fruit bearing trees, particularly coffee.

            Aside from Teniente del Barrio Artemio Prado, the leaders who served as teniente, capitan del barrio and barangay captain of Malpalon were Martin Balaleng, Ephraim Tejada, Sr., Fermin Boaquin and Rudelito Barrientos.  The leader of the barangay at present is Brgy. Capt. Samson Tejada.[32] 


4.  NEW DAGUPAN


            This place was a part of the wide pastureland of the Order of Augustinian Recollects, during the Spanish occupation of Mindoro.

            During the American regime, this was a part of the abandoned friar land being sold by the government to the farmers.  A community of farmers gradually appeared in this area. 

            When Calintaan became a barrio of Sablayan, a few years before the outbreak of World War II, one of the sitios which was put under its jurisdiction was the community of farmers in this place.  Due to the reddish color of its soil, the community was called Sitio Pulang Lupa. 

            In 1953, the families of Herminigildo Gomez and Felimon Verzola from Pangasinan bought agricultural land in this place and decided to settle here permanently.

The following year, a group of farmers from La Union, led by Emiliano Caraso, Godofredo Ramos and Teofilo Garcia arrived in this place.  Other members of the group were the families of Domingo Garcia, Moises Buccat, Laurencio Garcia, Isabelo Balmonte, Jose Mabalot, Dorotea Cariaso, Juan Bocobo and Serapio Viduya.  The group of farmers from Tarlac led by Tomas Rapisura, Candido Cudamos and Castor Rosete came next.  These persons were the first settlers who built houses at the surveyed residential site of the sitio.

In 1956, the group of farmers from Central & Northern Luzon led by Desiderio Bullagay, Lorenzo Bullagay and Efraim Tejada arrived.  Other members of the group were the families of Francisco Andres, Juan Aguinaldo, Federico Arellano, Modesto Lopez, Bruno Mabitasan, Alfredo Balmonte, Francisco Domingo, Adriano Bucsit, Maximo Domingo and Diosdado Sabado, Sr.

The residents of Pulang Lupa strived to open a primary school in their sitio.  With the guidance and assistance of District Supervisor Mariano Ramirez, extension classes for Grades I & II were opened in their community.  They were able to convince San Jose Municipal Health Officer Ricardo Pascasio, Sr., to look after their health by visiting their sitio once a month.

To make their agricultural land more productive, the farmers through cooperative labor constructed an irrigation system from Marilao River up to their farms.  They formed a farmers’ group.  Mr. Emiliano Cariaso prepared and submitted to the proper authorities the documents which made their group legal.

The residents sent a petition to the municipal council of Sablayan and the provincial board of Occidental Mindoro requesting that Sitio Pulang Lupa be elevated to the status of a barrio.  The petition was approved in 1957 and Pulang Lupa became a barrio of Sablayan.       .    

            Immediately after Pulang Lupa was made a barrio, the inhabitants agreed to change its name.  Two names were proposed by the people.  The first one was La Pantar, the combined first letters of the names of the three provinces where the residents came from:  La Union, Pangasinan and Tarlac.  The second one was New Dagupan, for the word Dagupan, in the Ilocano dialect means a place where the Ilocanos from the different provinces of the Ilocos Region met.  The word New was added to the name because a city in Pangasinan named Dagupan already exists.

            Through the combined efforts of its inhabitants and leaders, Barrio New Dagupan now called a barangay became progressive.  The individuals who served as teniente, capitan del barrio and barangay captain of this community were Desiderio Bullagay, Francisco Andres, Bartolome Rapisura, Bruno Mabitasan, Candido Cudamos, Francisco Domingo, Rodrigo Novelozo, Guillermo Racca and Ernesto Mabitasan.  The leader of the barangay at present is Brgy. Captain Luz Lopez.[33]


5.  POBLACION 


            The indigenous people belonging to the Tau-Buhid or Batangan tribe were the first inhabitants of this place.  Aside from few patches of kaingin, forests and two lakes full of leeches could be found in this place.

            In 1894, a group of families from Zambales led by Mr. Espiridion Jimenez settled in the pueblo of Magarang which is now a part of the municipality of Rizal.  In that community, Mr. Jimenez was elected as the capitan del pueblo.  Years later, disagreements occurred between the Jimenez family and the priests whom they served. The group decided to transfer to another place where they could settle permanently.  At first, they settled in Iriron where Capitan Jimenez was again elected as capitan del pueblo.  Later on, they transferred to the forested plains south of Iriron, near two lakes full of leeches.  A few families from Iriron joined their group.

            The farmers who cleared the forest and built huts in the place they called Calintaan were Eligio Jimenez, Martin Gonzales, Severo Iculin, Victor Pudan, Isidro Obispo, Simeon Picarzo, Agapito Picarzo, Apolonio Pica, Basilio Urdanza, Faustino Alejandro, Joaquin Isidro, Hilarion Isidro, Simplicio Pudan, Vicente Alivanza, Clemente Pudan, Anastacio Encomio, Tomas Picarzo, Ciriaco Alejandro, Timoteo Ladringan, Florencio Ladringan, Cipriano Garlitos and Agapito Bautista.

            No school for formal education existed during that period.  The children were taught cartilla and caton, together with Arithmetic which consisted of somar, restar, multiplicar and dividir at the convent of the missionary priest.  Fr. Javier Sesma, the roving missionary who took care of Calintaan during that time, assigned Remedios Jimenez, the daughter of Capitan Espiridion Jimenez as teacher of the children.

            When the Filipinos revolted against the Spaniards, Capitan Jimenez formed a group of revolutionaries.  They joined the group formed by Capitan Pedro Fernandez of Sablayan and Capitan Marianito Abeleda & Agustin Liboro of Paluan.  They captured the Spanish priest assigned in Magarang and sent him to the prison for missionary friars in Taysan, Batangas. 

            In 1902, during the American occupation of Mindoro, Calintaan was made as a barrio of Sablayan.  After twelve years, an elementary school was established in this place.  Remedios Jimenez, Leoncio Panganiban and Primitivo Zamora were appointed as the first elementary schoolteachers.             

            The barrio of Calintaan grew and it slightly moved away from the lakes full of leeches, to the area where it is located at present.  In 1966, through the efforts of Mr. & Mrs. Feliciano Cajayon, together with Mr. Mariano Labrador, a barrio high school was established here.  The following year, by virtue of Republic Act No. 4732, sponsored in Congress by the late Congressman Pedro Medalla, Sr., Calintaan was separated from Sablayan and created as another municipality.  The center of the new municipality was placed at the community formed by Capitan Jimenez and the twenty two members of his group, during the Spanish times.

            Those who served as cabeza de barangay of Calintaan were Eligio Jimenez and Ricardo Jimenez.  Those who served as teniente and capitan del barrio were Vicente Alivansa, Leoncio Panganiban, Jacinto Gonzales, Constancio Villaroza, Tirso Jimenez, Mariano Labrador, Manuel Labrador, Vicente Ariola, Sr., Aniceto Apigo, Alberto Obispo and Vicente Ariola, Jr.  Those who served as barangay captain were Esteban Gagtan, Victorio Gasmin, Eliseo del Rosario, Eufrocino Ulay, Renato Paulino and Miguel Calabio.  The leader of the barangay at present is Brgy. Captain Miguel Isidro.[34]

6.  POYPOY


            The indigenous people belonging to the tribe of Tau-Buhid or Batangan were the first inhabitants of this place.  Since the area is hilly and far from the communities of their fellow indigenous people, upon reaching this place, the Tau-Buhid frequently uttered the word Malapoy, meaning Its tiring.

            The farmers who pioneered in cultivating the agricultural land in the area belonged to the families of Ulay and Lineses.  They were members of the group who founded the community of Calintaan.

            In 1950, group of farmers from Ilocos Norte, belonging to the families of Quimoyog, Morella, Magno, Guilas and Tolentino arrived in this place.  They cleared the forest and converted it into productive land.  Since they always hear the indigenous people uttering the words malapoy, malapoy, when tired of walking, they agreed to call  their community Poypoy, the last syllables of the repeated word.  Later on, Poypoy  became a sitio of the barrio of Calintaan.

            After a few years, families who were seeking for vacant lands settled in Poypoy.  The community grew.  Its inhabitants requested the municipal council of Sablayan to elevate their sitio to the status of a barrio.  Members of the municipal council granted their request and on June 6, 1956 Poypoy became a barrio of Sablayan.  Mr. Eufrocino Ulay was elected as the first teniente del barrio.

            Since the lowlanders occupied the land which were formerly their kaingin, the indigenous people transferred to the mountains.  Sometimes they descend from the highlands to work as farm laborers in the ricefields of the lowlanders.

            In 1958, a primary school was opened by the government in Poypoy.  After many years, the schoolhouse which was made of bamboo, cogon and lumber was replaced with concrete buildings.

            When the local government unit led by the late Governor Arsenio Villaroza, constructed the provincial highway joining Mamburao to San Jose, it passed through Poypoy.  As a result, in 1966 many passenger buses and jeepneys passed in this barrio.  Unfortunately, landslides frequently occur at the portion of the highway by the mountainside.  After a few years, drivers of land transportation vehicles decided to use the old highway near the coast of Occidental Mindoro.

            In 1967, Calintaan was created as a municipality.  Poypoy was one of the barrios which was placed under its jurisdiction.  Gradually, the roads from the barrio to the sitios were improved by the municipal government.  When the national government declared Mt. Iglit as a tamaraw conservation park, a wide mountainous area under the jurisdiction of Poypoy was included in the park.

            Since its difficult for the schoolchildren from Sitio Nilapso to walk from their community to Poypoy to attend classes in the public school of the barrio, the government opened an elementary school in the said sitio in 1978.

            In 1995, an irrigation water system was constructed by the National Irrigation Administration or NIA in Poypoy.  The source of water for irrigation purposes was Anahawin River.  That same year, Calintaan National High School opened extension classes in the barangay.

            Aside from Mr. Eufrocino Ulay, the individuals who served as teniente, capitan del barrio and barangay captain of Poypoy were Matias Quimoyog, Samuel Casabar, Bonifacio Gongora, Victor Mamaril, Lucila Magno, Eufrocino Baldos and Freddie Aglipay.  The leader of the barangay at present is Brgy. Captain Henry Quimoyog.[35]


7.  TANYAG   


            The farmers called this wide plain near Lumintao River as Kabulanbulanan.  The name came from bulan-bulan, a kind of plant which abound in this place. 

            The first settlers of Kabulanbulanan came from the provinces of Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Cavite and Pangasinan.  Among them were the families of Alejandro, Balolua, Malilay, Gonzales and Garcia.  They cleared the forested plain and converted it into productive agricultural land.

            Kabulanbulanan became a sitio of the barrio of Calintaan in 1955.  After six years, a class for Grade 1 pupils was opened in this community.  Years later, the school offered a complete elementary course and its classrooms which were made of light materials were replaced by concrete structures.

            In 1967, when Calintaan was created as a municipality, the residents of Kabulanbulanan requested the municipal council that their community be elevated to the status of a barrio.  After meeting all the requirements, the request was granted and in 1968, Kabulanbulanan became a barrio of Calintaan.  Mr. Venancio Malilay was elected as the first teniente del barrio.

            The inhabitants decided to change the name of their barrio.  From among the proposals, Kanyag was favored, the name given by the indigenous people to the big, white stone in a mountain near the barrio which any person entering Kabulanbulanan could easily see.  However, majority of the barrio folks wanted to change the first letter of the name, thus, Kanyag became Tanyag.

            When Calintaan Natonal High School opened extension classes in Concepcion and Iriron, a first year class for high school students was also opened in Tanyag.  After a few years, complete classes for high school students were offered in the barrio now called a barangay. 

            Families of farmers continued to arrive in Tanyag, particularly in Gutad which was one of its sitios.  They occupied the plain lands which were former portions of the pastureland of some well off families.  They petitioned  the Department of Environment & Natural Resources to re-classify the said lands and distribute it to the farmers.  After a few years of fighting for their rights which sometimes led to violent clashes, the petitioners succeeded in acquiring certificates of ownership for the land they occupied and tilled.

            The erosion of some portion of their land every rainy season became a problem of the farmers of Tanyag.  As a result, they requested Gov. Josephine Ramirez- Sato to divert the flow of water in Lumintao River.  In 1994, the chief executive of the province sent a heavy equipment operator with a bulldozer to this place to deepen the river, construct a dike and divert the flow of the river.  Since that time, the erosion of some portions of productive land was somehow lessened.

            Aside from Mr. Malilay, the individuals who served as teniente, capitan del barrio and barangay captain of Tanyag were Anastacio Garcia, Feliciano Gelacio, Fernando Jaravata, Jose Aquino, Damaso Lopez, Salvador de Vera, Dante Pugal, Rosendo Sabado, Manuel Halog and Orlando Garcia.  The leader of the barangay at present is Brgy. Captain Roberto Alejandro.[36]        

           After a few years, complete classes for high school students were offered in the barrio now called a barangay. 

            Families of farmers continued to arrive in Tanyag, particularly in Gutad which was one of its sitios.  They occupied the plain lands which were former portions of the pastureland of some well off families.  They petitioned  the Department of Environment & Natural Resources to re-classify the said lands and distribute it to the farmers.  After a few years of fighting for their rights which sometimes led to violent clashes, the petitioners succeeded in acquiring certificates of ownership for the land they occupied and tilled.

            The erosion of some portion of their land every rainy season became a problem of the farmers of Tanyag.  As a result, they requested Gov. Josephine Ramirez- Sato to divert the flow of water in Lumintao River.  In 1994, the chief executive of the province sent a heavy equipment operator with a bulldozer to this place to deepen the river, construct a dike and divert the flow of the river.  Since that time, the erosion of some portions of productive land was somehow lessened.

            Aside from Mr. Malilay, the individuals who served as teniente, capitan del barrio and barangay captain of Tanyag were Anastacio Garcia, Feliciano Gelacio, Fernando Jaravata, Jose Aquino, Damaso Lopez, Salvador de Vera, Dante Pugal, Rosendo Sabado, Manuel Halog and Orlando Garcia.  The leader of the barangay at present is Brgy. Captain Roberto Alejandro.[37]        

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